Code and Project Conventions

Conventions and standards that guide the development and arrangement of Airship component projects.

Project Structure


Each project that maintains helm charts will keep those charts in a directory charts located at the root of the project. The charts directory will contain subdirectories for each of the charts maintained as part of that project. These subdirectories should be named for the component represented by that chart.

E.g.: For project foo, which also maintains the charts for bar and baz:

  • foo/charts/foo contains the chart for foo

  • foo/charts/bar contains the chart for bar

  • foo/charts/baz contains the chart for baz

Helm charts utilize the helm-toolkit supported by the Openstack-Helm team and follow the standards documented there.


Each project that creates Docker images will keep Dockerfiles in a directory images located at the root of the project. The images directory will contain subdirectories for each of the images created as part of that project. The subdirectory will contain Dockerfiles that can be used to generate images.

E.g.: For project foo, which also produces a Docker image for bar:

  • foo/images/foo contains Dockerfiles for foo

  • foo/images/bar contains Dockerfiles for bar

Each image must include the following set of labels conforming to the OCI image annotations standard as the minimum:

org.opencontainers.image.authors=', irc://#airshipit@freenode'
org.opencontainers.image.documentation='<documentation on readthedocs or in repository URL>'
org.opencontainers.image.source='<repository URL>'
org.opencontainers.image.vendor='The Airship Authors'
org.opencontainers.image.revision='<Git commit ID>'
org.opencontainers.image.created='UTC date and time in RFC3339 format with seconds'
org.opencontainers.image.title='<image name, e.g. "armada">'

Last three annotations (revision, created and title), being dynamic, are added on a container build stage. Others are statically defined in Dockerfiles. Optional custom annotation is added to the Airship images published to the community.

Image tags must follow format:

  • :<full Git commit ID>_<distro_suffix>

  • :<branch>_<distro_suffix> - latest image built from specific branch

  • :latest_<distro_suffix> - latest image built from master

The _<distro suffix> (e.g. _ubuntu_xenial) could be omitted. See Airship Multiple Linux Distribution Support specification for details.

Images should follow best practices for the container images. Be slim and secure in particular.


Dockerfile file names must follow format: Dockerfile.<distro_suffix>, where <distro_suffix> matches corresponding image tag suffix. The .<distro_suffix> could be omitted where not relevant.

Lines should be indented by a space character next to the Dockerfile instruction block they correspond to.

Dockerfile must allow base image substitution via FROM argument. This is to allow the use of base images stored in third-party or internal repositories.

Dockerfile should follow best practices. Use multistage container builds where possible to reduce image size and attack surface. RUN statements should pass linting via shellcheck. You may use available Dockerfile linters, if you wish to do so.

See example Dockerfile file for reference.


Each project must provide a Makefile at the root of the project. The Makefile should implement each of the following Makefile targets:

  • images will produce the docker images for the component and each other component it is responsible for building.

  • charts will helm package all of the charts maintained as part of the project.

  • lint will perform code linting for the code and chart linting for the charts maintained as part of the project, as well as any other reasonable linting activity.

  • dry-run will produce a helm template for the charts maintained as part of the project.

  • all will run the lint, charts, and images targets.

  • docs should render any documentation that has build steps.

  • run_{component_name} should build the image and do a rudimentary (at least) test of the image’s functionality.

  • run_images performs the inidividual run_{component_name} targets for projects that produce more than one image.

  • tests to invoke linting tests (e.g. PEP-8) and unit tests for the components in the project

  • format to invoke automated code formatting specific to the project’s code language (e.g. Python for armada and Go for airshipctl) as listed in the Linting and Formatting Standards.

For projects that are Python based, the Makefile targets typically reference tox commands, and those projects will include a tox.ini defining the tox targets. Note that tox.ini files will reside inside the source directories for modules within the project, but a top-level tox.ini may exist at the root of the repository that includes the necessary targets to build documentation.


Also see Documentation.

Documentation source for the component should reside in a ‘docs’ directory at the root of the project.

Linting and Formatting Standards

Code in the Airship components should follow the prevalent linting and formatting standards for the language being implemented. In lieu of industry accepted code formatting standards for a target language, strive for readability and maintainability.

Known Standards


Tools Used










YAPF, Flake8

Ansible formatting

Ansible code should be linted to be conformant to the standards checked by ansible-lint project.

Bash Formatting

Bash shell scripts code should be linted to be conformant to the standards checked by Shellcheck project.

Bash shell scripts code in Helm templates should ideally be linted as well, however gating of it is a noble goal and is only desired.

Go Formatting

Go code should be formatted using gofmt. When using gofmt be sure to use the -s flag to include simplification of code for example:

gofmt -s /path/to/file.go

Markdown Formatting

Markdown code (documentation) should be linted to be conformant to the standards checked by markdownlint project.

Python PEP-8 Formatting

Python should be formatted via YAPF. The knobs for YAPF can be specified in the project’s root directory in ‘.style.yapf’. The contents of this file should be:

based_on_style = pep8
spaces_before_comment = 2
column_limit = 79
blank_line_before_nested_class_or_def = false
blank_line_before_module_docstring = true
split_before_logical_operator = true
split_before_first_argument = true
allow_split_before_dict_value = false
split_before_arithmetic_operator = true

A sample Flake8 section is below, for use in tox.ini, and is the method of enforcing import orders via Flake8 extension flake8-import-order:

filename = *.py
show-source = true
# [H106] Don't put vim configuration in source files.
# [H201] No 'except:' at least use 'except Exception:'
# [H904] Delay string interpolations at logging calls.
enable-extensions = H106,H201,H904
# [W503] line break before binary operator
ignore = W503
max-complexity = 24

Airship components must provide for automated checking of their formatting standards, such as the lint step noted above in the Makefile, and in the future via CI jobs. Components may provide automated reformatting.

YAML Schema

YAML schema defined by Airship should have key names that follow camelCase naming conventions.

Note that Airship also integrates and consumes a number of projects from other open source communities, which may have their own style conventions, and which will therefore be reflected in Airship deployment manifests. Those fall outside the scope of these Airship guidelines.

Any YAML schema that violate this convention at the time of this writing (e.g. with snake_case keys) may be either grandfathered in, or converted, at the development team’s discretion.

Tests Location

Tests should be in parallel structures to the related code, unless dictated by target language ecosystem.

For Python projects, the preferred location for tests is a tests directory under the directory for the module. E.g. Tests for module foo: {root}/src/bin/foo/foo/tests. An alternataive location is tests at the root of the project, although this should only be used if there are not multiple components represented in the same repository, or if the tests cross the components in the repository.

Each type of test should be in its own subdirectory of tests, to allow for easy separation. E.g. tests/unit, tests/functional, tests/integration.

Source Code Location

A standard structure for the source code places the source for each module in a module-named directory under either /src/bin or /src/lib, for executable modules and shared library modules respectively. Since each module needs its own and setup.cfg (python) that lives parallel to the top-level module (i.e. the package), the directory for the module will contain another directory named the same.

For example, Project foo, with module foo_service would have a source structure that is /src/bin/foo_service/foo_service, wherein the for the package resides.

Sample Project Structure (Python)

Project foo, supporting multiple executable modules foo_service, foo_cli, and a shared module foo_client

{root of foo}
 |- /doc
 |    |- /source
 |    |- requirements.txt
 |- /etc
 |    |- /foo
 |         |- {sample files}
 |- /charts
 |    |- /foo
 |    |- /bar
 |- /images
 |    |- /foo
 |    |    |- Dockerfile
 |    |- /bar
 |         |- Dockerfile
 |- /tools
 |    |- {scripts/utilities supporting build and test}
 |- /src
 |    |- /bin
 |    |    |- /foo_service
 |    |    |    |- /foo_service
 |    |    |    |    |-
 |    |    |    |    |- {source directories and files}
 |    |    |    |- /tests
 |    |    |    |    |- unit
 |    |    |    |    |- functional
 |    |    |    |-
 |    |    |    |- setup.cfg
 |    |    |    |- requirements.txt (and related files)
 |    |    |    |- tox.ini
 |    |    |- /foo_cli
 |    |         |- /foo_cli
 |    |         |    |-
 |    |         |    |- {source directories and files}
 |    |         |- /tests
 |    |         |    |- unit
 |    |         |    |- functional
 |    |         |-
 |    |         |- setup.cfg
 |    |         |- requirements.txt (and related files)
 |    |         |- tox.ini
 |    |- /lib
 |         |- /foo_client
 |              |- /foo_client
 |              |    |-
 |              |    |- {source directories and files}
 |              |- /tests
 |              |    |- unit
 |              |    |- functional
 |              |-
 |              |- setup.cfg
 |              |- requirements.txt (and related files)
 |              |- tox.ini
 |- Makefile
 |- README  (suitable for github consumption)
 |- tox.ini (primarily for the build of repository-level docs)

Note that this is a sample structure, and that target languages may preclude the location of some items (e.g. tests). For those components with language or ecosystem standards contrary to this structure, ecosystem convention should prevail.